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religious terrorism – Professional Essay Writing Service


religious terrorism
want you to write a four page paper relating 3 criminal justice theories to a research paper you wrote before. I will upload the paper and the instructions.

the theories are

A. Differential Association — Sutherland theory

B. Social Bonding Theory – Hirschi theory

C. Labeling – Becker Theory

Making sense of biological, psychological, and sociological explanations of deviance
1. Biological explanations Focus on genetic factors e.g., including intelligence, “XYY” theory, and body type Evaluation has shown that none of these particular theories have held up well, but we can’t totally rule them out. Lombroso (1911) proposed the first biological explanation of deviance – he looked at cranial sizes and body types. 2. Psychological explanations Focus on personality disorders, such as deviating personalities and specific negative childhood experiences no particular personalities are invariably linked with deviance 3. Sociological explanations Focus on factors outside the individual Deviance is different from culture to culture Sociologists look for social factors, such as social class, that may explain why certain people break norms. Organization: I. Symbolic Interactionist Theories: 1. Differential Association – Sutherland 2. Social Bonding Theory – Hirschi 3. Labeling – Becker 4. Techniques of Neutralization – Sykes and Matza II. Functionalist Theories: 1. White Collar Crime 2. Strain Theories: a) Merton – American Dream; b) Cohen – status and acceptance; c) Cloward & Ohlin – differential opportunity III. Conflict Theories General I. The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Theories A. Differential Association — Sutherland People who associate with criminal peers are more likely to become involved in criminal behavior because they see the behavior as acceptable, e.g. kids who hang out with delinquent kids get so used to delinquency that they think it is OK. Remember disproportionate “association” with delinquent peers causes delinquency. B. Social Bonding Theory – Hirschi Hirschi is interested in why people conform to societies norms Bonding to society prevents delinquency When bonds are broken or weak, the individual deviates There are four types of social bonds: 1) attachments (refers to how much the individual cares about what others think), 2) involvement in society (engrossment in conventional activities means little time and energy for delinquency), 3) commitment to goals (stronger the commitment to goals the less likely the chances of delinquency since delinquency is at oIDs with the conventional goals), and 4) believing in the rules of society (once an individual has been socialized into a common belief system they are less likely to deviate). C. Labeling – Becker – once labeled a criminal by the system, that label follows the individual through society and they are stigmatized for life. No matter what they do, they are still “criminal.” Eventually this person may have little choice but to re-offend. D. Techniques of Neutralization: Sykes and Matza: “excuse theory” Justifications and excuses for committing delinquent acts which are essentially in appropriate extensions of commonly accepted rationalizations found in the general culture. These are: denial of responsibility: e.g. the action was an accident denial of injury: focuses on the harm done regardless of laws broken, e.g., no one got hurt denial of the victim: e.g. self-defense or retaliation, absence of a victim condemnation of the condemners: the youth turns the tables on those condemning their behavior by saying that they are no better, e.g., cops are racist, picking on me, etc. appeal to higher loyalties: youth adhere to the beliefs of one group because there are greater rewards and more loyalty to that group. II. The Functionalist Perspective theories: focus on groups in society that work together to form a whole. Durkheim was the first sociologist to propose that crime is a completely normal part of society because it helps society function (even though crime is a dysfunction) According to Durkheim: deviance has three functions Sets moral boundaries and norms Promotes social unity: the punishment brings out a feeling of “we” because as a society “we” will not tolerate this behavior Deviance promotes social conge: groups have to get together and decide what is acceptable and what is not. White Collar Crime: Sutherland
First described by Sutherland as a violation of the criminal law by a person of the upper-socioeconomic class, committed during his or her occupational activities. Examples are insider trading, embezzlement, false advertising, fraud, price-fixing, etc. Computers have made this type of crime more accessible.
Strain Theories: there are a whole slew of strain theories – most of them written in response to Merton’s theory, which is known as “classical strain theory.” Strain is a simpler word for “anomie.” As a group, these theories were written largely with juvenile delinquency in mind. They see crime and deviance as a normal response to abnormal conditions in society.

Merton – strain results from an end-means disjunction because not all people have the means to achieve the American Dream – which he saw as the universal goal of our society. People could respond to strain in any of five ways: conformity – non-deviant – the most common response – acceptance of the way things are. People continue to strive for success within the means available to them. Innovation – most common deviant mode – subscribe to the goals but use illegitimate ways to achieve them e.g. drug dealers. Rebellion: another deviant mode – reject the system altogether and replace it with a new one e.g. religious cult groups, gangs Retreatism: deviant escapist response: a person gives up both the goals and the means e.g. alcoholic, druggie, etc. Ritualism: non-deviant – give up the goals and focus on acting in a socially acceptable fashion. 2) Albert Cohen: (1955) wrote the book “Delinquent Boys.” He says the source of strain is not the American dream, but rather the failure to gain status and acceptance from peers e.g. why kids join gangs. Still a relevant theory for today, except that it does not aIDress female gangs – often the reasons a female has for joining a gang is different, e.g., escaping sexual abuse, etc. 3) Cloward & Ohlin: differential opportunity Not everyone has opportunities to commit delinquent acts. Youths form different types of subcultures. 1. delinquent criminal subcultures: organized youth gangs with a focus on income producing offenses; 2. conflict subcultures: gangs focused on turf battles; 3. retreatist gangs with a focus on consumption of drugs and alcohol. 4) Robert Agnew (1992): general strain theory Agnew expanded Robert Merton’s theory by including aIDitional sources of strain. According to Agnew (1992), strain results from three different sources: Blocked opportunity (see Merton) Exposure to noxious stimuli Removal of positively valued stimuli One of the important intervening variables for Agnew is response to strain with Anger. III. Conflict Perspective on deviance: The purpose of social control is to maintain power for an elite group. In the US, this group consists of mainly wealthy, white men who work behind the scenes to control government. They even control official deviance – societies official statistics on crime. Hagan’s Power Control Theory (1988) Structural Criminology Traditional theories take into account relational power dynamics, but they fail to capture the dynamics of power in the measures. The central focus of power control-theory is on the gender patterns of delinquency. Hagan (1988) indicates that “the class structure of the family plays a significant role in explaining the social distribution of delinquent behavior through the social reproduction of gender roles” (p. 146). -Delinquency is influenced by the family structure and how free children are to engage in delinquency. -Patriarchy ? males create and maintain relationships that allow them to control others (this extends beyond a work place setting and influences family relationships). -In patriarchal families, males are generally employed outside the home and the female/mother is delegated the job of controlling the children. Daughters are typically controlled more than sons in patriarchal families. -Patriarchy has survived and been maintained through the development of industrial capitalist societies. ? fosters gendered patterns of delinquency ? boys are more likely than girls to be delinquent. -The emergence of women in the labor force changed the previously well-defined gender schemas. ? As women become more involved in the labor force, daughters will be treated more equally to sons. As daughters are treated more equally to sons, gendered patterns in delinquency will decrease. -Current examinations of Hagan’s (1988) power-control theory have incorporated fear of victimization and rates of victimization into the power-control theory.
-Young men are more likely to be victimized than young women, although the social expectations are the opposite of this reality. -Young women are less likely than men to be victimized, but they are more likely to be fearful of victimization. -Young men are less fearful of victimization than women. -Fear of victimization and perceptions of victimization also influences family dynamics related to power and control. -Fear of victimization also influences likelihood of risk taking behavior.


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